Programming by Stealth

A blog and podcast series by Bart Busschots & Allison Sheridan.

PBS 85 of X — Objects as Arrays in JavaScript (Redux & Update)

There are many programming concepts that are common to the vast majority of programming languages, but each language implements these concepts in their own unique and special way. In JavaScript, objects are used to implement many concepts. I like to think of JavaScript objects as a single language feature that wears many hats. In the previous instalment we focused on one of these hats, JavaScript’s use of objects to implement dictionaries. In this instalment we’ll look at another hat JavaScript objects get to wear — arrays. As with the previous instalment, this instalment will be a mixture of consolidated reminders of things we’ve met before, and of some new features added to arrays in more recent versions of the JavaScript language.

We’ll also look at a sample solution to the challenge set at the end of instalment 83, but unusually, we’ll do that after our look at arrays.

You can download this instalment’s ZIP file here or here on GitHub (now via the JSDelivr CDN). If you prefer, you can access this instalment’s resources directly at the following links:

Matching Podcast Episode 613

Listen along to this instalment on episode 613 of the Chit Chat Across the Pond Podcast

You can also Download the MP3

Array Basics (Redux)

Regardless of the language you are using, conceptually, an array is a data structure consisting of an ordered list of values. Generally the values could be anything: simple booleans, numbers, strings, dictionaries, instances of classes, regular expressions, functions, or arrays. As a general rule, if the language you’re using can store a value in a variable, then it can probably store that value in an array.

Notice that we have a potentially nested structure because arrays can contain arrays! In fact, things get even more complicated, because arrays can contain dictionaries as well as other arrays. Dictionaries can contain arrays as well as other dictionaries. Generally speaking, regardless of the language you’re using, you’ll build your data structures by nesting dictionaries and arrays as needed. Note that, in JavaScript, with the exception of booleans, numbers, and strings (sort of), everything else that goes into a data structure is an object wearing one of its many hats!

Before we get specific and limit our attention to JavaScript arrays, let’s remind ourselves of the fundamental properties of arrays in general. Regardless of the language, arrays generally have the following properties:

  1. The entries in an array are ordered and numbered, and usually indexed from 0 rather than from 1. That is, the first element in an array is generally referred to as element zero, the second as element one, and so on.
  2. Arrays can contain empty slots in the list. That is, it’s OK to have values at positions 0 and 2, but not at position 1.
  3. Arrays have a length. It’s usually defined as the number of positions from the start of the array to the highest populated position. So, an array with only a single value at position 9 will have a length of 10 (remember that pesky zero index!).

JavaScript Arrays

As mentioned in the introduction, JavaScript uses objects to implement the array concept. At their most fundamental level, JavaScript arrays are dictionaries with numeric keys numbered from zero. To make them behave in an array-like-way, JavaScript arrays are not just dictionaries though; they’re instances of the built-in prototype/class Array. It’s this class that provides the additional array features above and beyond what a simple dictionary provides.

So, in Javascript, arrays are objects of type Array.

The Array prototype adds just one property of note to arrays — .length. JavaScript defines an array’s length as one greater than the highest index that contains a value, or zero if the array contains no values. So, if you have an array with 10 values indexed from zero to nine, then that array’s .length will be 10, but an array with a single value at index 9 will also have a .length of 10.

Creating Arrays with Array Literals

In JavaScript we can create arrays using the array literal syntax. This syntax simply consists of comma-separated values enclosed within square brackets.

For example, to create an array containing a boolean, a number, and a string, you could do something like:

const myArray = [true, 42, 'life, the universe, and everything'];

Array literals can contain any valid JavaScript value, including variables, array literals, and object literals.

Accessing Array Elements

Since JavaScript arrays are fundamentally just objects with numeric keys, the rules for accessing individual values are the same as those for any other object. However, note that, because numbers are not valid variable names, array elements can’t be accessed using the dot syntax. They must be accessed using the square bracket syntax:

const myArray = ['one', 'two', 'three'];
console.log(myArray[1]); // outputs 'two'
myArray[1] = 'TWO!!';
console.log(myArray[1]); // outputs 'TWO!!'

Note that in JavaScript, object keys are always cast to strings; so myArray[1] is interpreted as myArray['1'].

Standard Array Functions

Because JavaScript arrays are all instances of the built-in Array class, they all have the instance functions that class’s prototype defines. You can find the full list on MDN’s documentation of the Array class, but below are some common examples we’ve seen before in this series.

Note that these examples are intended to be run from the JavaScript console on the file pbs85a.html from this instalment’s zip file. The examples make use of an array named days defined within that file’s global scope as follows:

var days = ['Monday', 'Tuesday', 'Wednesday', 'Thursday', 'Friday', 'Saturday', 'Sunday'];

OK, let’s look at the actual examples now:

// combine into a string with a separator
console.log(days.join(', '));

// extract the last two elements of the array

// remove the first element of the array
console.log(days); // now shorter!

// add an element to the front of the array
console.log(days); // now longer again!

// remove the last element of the array
console.log(days); // now shorter!

// add an element to the end of the array
console.log(days); // now longer again!

// sort the array
console.log(days); // now in alphabetical order

// reverse the array
console.log(days); // now in reverse alphabetical order

The Array class also provides a few useful static functions. We’ve seen both of the noteworthy ones already in this series:

// test if a value is an array

// try convert a value to an array if possible

Because the above snippets altered the value of the days array, please refresh pbs85a.html before continuing.

The Spread Operator within Arrays

The spread operator can be used to include all the elements from an existing array into an array literal:

const a1 = [2, 4, 6, 8];
const a2 = [0, ...a1, 10];
console.log(a2); // prints [0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10]

A very common use of the spread operator is to create a so-called shallow clone of an array. Before explaining what a shallow clone is, it’s important to remember that, in JavaScript, when any object is stored in any variable, including in a dictionary or an array, what is actually stored is a reference to the object, not the object itself. Most of the time this subtlety is irrelevant, but there are times when it really matters.

To illustrate the point, let’s inadvertently alter the days array in pbs85a.html:

const revDays = days;
console.log(revDays); // ["Sunday", "Saturday", "Friday", "Thursday", "Wednesday", "Tuesday", "Monday"]
console.log(days); // ["Sunday", "Saturday", "Friday", "Thursday", "Wednesday", "Tuesday", "Monday"] !!!

Because days contains a reference to an array object, when we assigned revDays to the value of days, revDays stored a copy of the reference, not a copy of the array. This means both days and revDays refer to the same array. So when we altered revDays, we also altered days.

Using the spread operator in conjunction with the array literal syntax, we can get around this problem by creating a new array that contains the values from the original array:

const revDays = [...days]; // shallow clone
console.log(revDays); // ["Sunday", "Saturday", "Friday", "Thursday", "Wednesday", "Tuesday", "Monday"]
console.log(days); // ["Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday", "Saturday", "Sunday"]

Why do we call this a shallow copy? Because only the values stored in the array get copied. If the array’s values are themselves references, then we are yet again copying references, as illustrated with this example:

const deepArray = [ //an array of arrays
  [1, 2, 3],
  [4, 5, 6],
  [7, 8, 9]
const shallowClone = [...deepArray];
console.log(shallowClone); // [[3, 2, 1], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]]
console.log(deepArray); // [[3, 2, 1], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]] !!!

Looping Over Arrays (Redux)

Again, the examples below will work with the days array defined in the file pbs85a.html from this instalment’s ZIP file.

One of the most common things to want to do with an array is loop over it. We’ve seen quite a few ways of doing that through out this series, but there are two particularly common approaches you’ll see used in sample code, etc.

Firstly, there’s the traditional way of looping over an array with a basic for loop:

// show the number of letters in each day
for(let i = 0; i < days.length; i++){
  const curDay = days[i];
  console.log(`${curDay} has ${curDay.length} letters`);

ES6 introduced a whole new kind of loop specifically designed for looping over arrays in a more concise and easier to read way — the for...of loop:

// show the number of letters in each day
for(const day of days){
  console.log(`${day} has ${day.length} letters`);

Array Destructuring (New)

In the previous instalment we say how the new object destructuring syntax can be used to create multiple variables from a dictionary in one step. It’s probably no surprise that there’s a similar syntax for creating multiple variables from an array in a single step. Just like the object destructuring syntax looked very similar to the object literal syntax, the array destructuring syntax looks very similar to the array literal syntax. Like object destructuring, the big give away for spotting array destructuring is that it occurs to the left of an assignment operator.

We won’t be going into all the details of this complex new syntax here, but if you’re interested you can get all the details from the ‘Destructuring assignment’ page on MDN.

This syntax is much more difficult to describe than to show. So let’s just show it!

const days = ['Monday', 'Tuesday', 'Wednesday', 'Thursday', 'Friday', 'Saturday', 'Sunday'];

// create three variables named d1, d2 & d3 in one step
const [d1, d2, d3] = days;
console.log(`d1=${d1}, d2=${d2} & d3=${d3}`);

You don’t have to capture all the values. If you only want the first and third, you can leave a slot empty:

const days = ['Monday', 'Tuesday', 'Wednesday', 'Thursday', 'Friday', 'Saturday', 'Sunday'];

// create two variables, skipping a value
const [d1a, , d3a] = days;
console.log(`d1a=${d1a} & d3a=${d3a}`);

You can also use the rest operator (...) to capture all the remaining elements into an array:

const days = ['Monday', 'Tuesday', 'Wednesday', 'Thursday', 'Friday', 'Saturday', 'Sunday'];

// collect the rest
const [d1b, d2b, ...dRest] = days;
console.log(`d1b=${d1b}, d2b=${d2b} & dRest=${dRest.join('|')}`);

A very common use for array destructuring is capturing the results of a regular expression match that contains capture groups. As a reminder, the .match() function from the String prototype takes a regular expression as an argument, and assuming the string the function is called on matches the RE (and that the RE doesn’t specify the g flag), returns an array where the first element is the entire matching substring, followed by all matched capture groups.

As a practical example, let’s make use of the dollarAmount RE defined in the global scope of the file pbs85a.html from this instalment’s ZIP file:

// a regular expression for matching dollar amounts
// the first capture group matches the number of dollars
// the second capture group matches the number of cents, if any
var dollarAmountRE = /[$](\d+)(?:[.](\d{2}))?/;

This RE matches the symbol $ followed by one or more digits in the first capture group followed by zero or one occurrences of a noncapturing group consisting of the . symbol followed by two digits in the second capture group. In other words, if the RE matches the first capture group, it will always capture the number of dollars. If there are cents, they will be captured by the second capture group.

Let’s see this RE in action to see what the .match() function actually returns. Firstly, let’s match a dollar amount without any cents:

console.log("That dress costs $500!!!".match(dollarAmountRE));
// prints: ["$500", "500", undefined]

Note we get an array with three elements: the full match, the first capture group, and the second capture group. Since the second capture group was not actually matched, it has the value undefined.

Now let’s see what happens when we do have some cents:

console.log("I hate prices like $9.99 because they work 🙁".match(dollarAmountRE));
// prints: ["$9.99", "9", "99"]

Again, we get an array with three elements: the full match, the first capture group, and the second capture group.

We can use argument destructuring to extract the dollars and cents into separate variables in a single step:

const sodaPrice = '$2.99';
const [, sodaDollars, sodaCents] = sodaPrice.match(dollarAmountRE);
console.log(`The soda costs ${sodaDollars} dollars and ${sodaCents} cents.`);

Notice the use of the leading comma to ignore the first value in the array returned by the .match(). function.

PBS 83 Challenge Solution

The challenge set at the end of instalment 83 was to use the free exchange rates API at https://exchangeratesapi.io to generate a collection of Bootstrap cards showing the exchange rates between currencies. There had to be at least three cards, each showing the rates for one currency against at least 5 others.

You can find my full sample solution in the folder pbs83-challengeSolution in this instalment’s ZIP file.

Before looking at a few smaller things in detail, I want to describe my overall design.

I chose to use the Bootstrap grid to lay out my cards so they could be responsive. I also chose to use a Mustache template embedded directly in the document to render each card. The reason I chose to embed the template rather than loading it from an external file is twofold: firstly, there’s just one small simple template, and secondly, having the template embedded avoids using AJAX to load a local file. So the example will work when opened directly in a browser from the local file system (i.e. no need for a web server like MAMP).

To facilitate the display of the currency data, I built a dictionary named CURRENCIES defining the english names, symbols, and icons for each supported currency. The dictionary is indexed by three-letter ISO 4217 currency codes. Rather than hard-coding the currencies to display, I chose to define them in globally scoped variables named DEFAULT_CURRENCIES (the currencies for my 3 cards), and DISPLAY_CURRENCIES (the currencies to display within each card). Both of these variables are arrays of ISO 4217 currency codes.

To generate the HTML for each card, I chose to write a stand-alone asynchronous function named buildCurrencyCard(). The function takes an ISO 4217 code as its only argument, and returns an HTML string. The function uses AJAX to fetch the exchange rates, combines those downloaded rates with information from the CURRENCIES dictionary to build a view object, and then generates the HTML using the embedded Mustache template.

Finally, the document ready handler loops over the currencies defined in the DEFAULT_CURRENCIES, calls buildCurrencyCard() with each to build an array of promises, and then uses Promise.all() to create a single promise for all three HTML snippets. When the promise resolves, the three snippets are added into the document.

The first thing I want to highlight is the template’s use of a Mustache section for repeating part of the template multiple times. That is, I use a section to create a loop in my template. Each card has to display multiple rates, so the repeated section describes how to display a single rate. I’ve highlighted the section within the full template below:

<div  class="col-12 col-md-6 col-lg-4">
  <div class="card m-3">
    <h2 class="card-header h4">
      {{{base.icon}}} {{base.name}}
      <small class="badge badge-primary badge-pill float-right">{{base.code}}</small>
    <ul class="list-group list-group-flush">
      <li class="list-group-item">
        <h3 class="d-inline h6 mr-2 text-secondary">{{code}}</h3>
        {{base.symbol}}1 = {{symbol}}{{rate}}
        <small class="text-muted">{{name}}</small>

For more on loops within Mustache templates, see Instalment 73.

By using named mustaches the template in effect defines the structure of the expected view. In this case the template expects just two top-level keys, base and rates. base should be a dictionary defining at least base.code, base.name, base.icon, and base.symbol. Because it will be used to loop over a section, rates must be an array of dictionaries. Each of those dictionaries must define at least code, name, rate, and symbol.

I’d like to draw your attention to the fact that all the needed information exists, but not in one place, and not in the required format. The rates come from the exchange rates API, and the rest from the CURRENCIES dictionary. Between fetching the exchange rates via AJAX and rendering the card template with Mustache, the buildCurrencyCard() function has to generate a view object of the above form. I’ve highlighted the section of the function that does that work below:

async function buildCurrencyCard(curCode){
  // validate the currency code
  curCode = String(curCode).toUpperCase();
    throw new TypeError(`Invalid country code: ${curCode}`);

  // fetch the data for the currency
  const curData = await $.ajax({ // could throw Error
    method: 'GET',
    cache: false,
    data: {
      base: curCode
  console.debug(`received currency data for '${curCode}': `, curData);

  // build the view for the card
  const cardView = {
    base: {
      code: curData.base,
    rates: []
  for(const cur of DISPLAY_CURRENCIES){
    if(cur === curData.base) continue; // skip self
      code: cur,
      rate: curData.rates[cur],
  console.debug('generated view:', cardView);

  // generate and return the HTML
  return Mustache.render(CURRENCY_CARD_TPL, cardView);

To help you understand what the code is doing, I added console.debug() statement to print both the raw data from the API and the final view object to the JavaScript console.

Notice the use of the spread operator (...) to import multiple keys into a dictionary at once.

A Challenge

Using your own solution to the challenge set in PBS 83 (the currency converter), or my sample solution, start the process of turning this static page into a simple web app by adding the following interactive features:

  1. The ability for users to dismiss a card by clicking on some kind of close button.
  2. The ability for users to add new cards for currencies of their choice using the UI of your choice.

Final Thoughts

We’ve now looked at the two most obvious hats JavaScript objects wear, but there are plenty of hats left on the proverbial Javascript object hat stand! JavaScript functions are also objects, as are JavaScript regular expressions. In some situations, so are Javascript strings. We’ll examine all these hats in upcoming instalments in the lead-up to revisiting the biggest hat of all — prototyped objects, or instances of prototypes/classes.

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